U3. Architecture Throughout History PREHISTORY: 5.000.000 B.C Australopithecus appeared in central Africa, they did’t have the need for shelter. Finally, after moving north, they evolve into Homo Habilis. 1.600.000 – 200.000 B.C By the appearance of Homo Erectus, fire and the need for shelter appear. 100.000 – 400 B.C Homo Neanderthal appears, they live in caves, think in symbolic terms, and lead a communal existence. 400.000 B.C The man begins to develop a better intellectual capacity, they improve the huts by covering them with skins and they begin to make cave paintings. 8.000 – 4.000 B.C Once agriculture and sedentarization were established, the first permanent houses began to be built and with these the first cities were created. PROTOHISTORY 4.000 – 3.000B.C Some cities are installed between the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, an area known as Mesopotamia. The architecture is made with adobe and brick, domestic pottery is also developed. The most relevant architectural elements of this period are the ziggurats, the ziggurats are pyramidal-shaped temples built on top of superimposed platforms communicated with ramps and ascending stairs. ANCIENT EGYPT 3.500 – 1.200 B.C The Egyptian civilization develops based on two axes, the Nile River and the Sun, therefore, life was of high quality and very peaceful. Egyptian architecture is characterized by being unchangeable and permanent, as well as being monumental and very misterious. The Temples were the most important public building, it was a place of worship, learning and training for the administration of the country. The pyramids were the reflection of their obssesion with the life, for the cult of the dead. ANCIENT GREECE: 1.200 – 146 B.C The Greeks evolved Egyptian architecture and sculpture, creating their own art and architecture. It is about seeking a balance between vertical and horizontal elements, each element was worked with care and they used the best materials to satisfy the gods. The polis includes the city and the surrounding farms, the Greek cities grew up around the acropolis, fortifications nestled in high areas. The buildings are organized by areas and functions, one of the most relevant buildings was the Agora, which was organized by houses but finally became organized in Stoas. The temple is the most important building, it is located on a stepped platform, its interior is not treated, instead the façade is the most artistic part of the building. In this type of construction, great technical perfection was achieved, they managed to avoid optical deformations. The theater and the stadium were the largest exterior buildings, their purpose is much greater than that of entertaining, since they were very important for education, culture and the life of the polis. Houses are simple houses, since life was developed in public buildings. The houses have hardly any interior space. ANCIENT ROME 1.200 B.C – 146 B.C The Romans expanded in the Mediterranean and throughout much of Europe. These, unlike the Greeks, sought functionality, stability and grandeur, their architecture was characterized by its closed interior spaces. They were able to create infrastructures such as sewage networks, aqueducts, roads, bridges, walls, etc. They also created commemorative constructions, such as the triumphal arches. As Public Buildings they created baths, theaters, circuses, basilicas and amphitheaters. The cities were raised with an orthogonal structure, in the heart of the cities was the forum and from there the two main streets were drawn. The religious buildings have more to do with the naturalism, vitality and energy of the Etruscans than with Greek rationality, they also experiment with the plant. The Domus was habitual home of the richest, they were decorated with mosaics, paintings and sculptures, they had a drain, water and heating. The Insulas belonged to the commoners, they were houses of three or four floors divided into different floors, they did not have heating. MIDDLE AGES 400 A.D The Roman Empire went into decline, with this they stopped building Roman public buildings. Finally, the little that was left of the Roman Empire was Christianized, therefore, the only important architecture were the churches and religious buildings. despite that, the most emblematic buildings that have arrived to this days are mainly forts and castles. BYZANTINE VI A.D Due to the raise of charitable activities, buildings are created dedicated to it, such as hospices, hospitals and orphanages. Byzantine architecture is characterized by being religious in nature, generally focusing on the interiors and leaving the exteriors in the background, stone is generally used as the main building material. PREROMANESQUE A system of vassalage replaces the system of loyalty to a remote government. In terms of architecture, the construction of churches, monasteries and castles predominates. AL ANDALUS ( ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN SPAIN) VIII-XV A.D Islamic architecture creates new types of buildings such as mosques and baths, in addition this architecture is marked by the use of towers and the use of water. Ornamentation is also used, this is used to create unique atmospheres, through the games of lights, colors, etc. ROMANESQUE X-XII A.D Romanesque art is associated with the Normans. Given the political instability, the cities were fortified and the palaces became castles, in addition round arches and Roman vaults began to be built. GOTHIC The art of this time is considered as the art of the barbarians, these arose when an artisan and commercial middle class was created. It is about going a step beyond Roman architecture, introducing diagonal ribs that reinforce the vaults. It is characterized by the construction of cathedrals and civil buildings. Given this invention, the pointed arch is created. Cathedrals: The house of God, needs to reach large dimensions with respect to the human scale, thanks to the pointed arch, a large part of the walls are eliminated. Civil buildings: They built town halls, palaces, universities … Thanks to the increase in trade, fish markets and union buildings were also built. RENAISSANCE XV-XVI A.D The church is in crisis. In Italy, an urban culture arises, they stand as protectors of art and commission buildings. At the same time, humanism arises, that is, human capacities begin to be exalted, distinguishing them from religion. Platonic ideal figures are recovered, that is, the circle, the square and the equilateral triangle. At this time we can find a rational and proportionate architecture. BAROQUE XVII-XVIII A.D The baroque, tries to obtain the maximum possible effects of the molded space, manipulating the light, the color and the sensual detail. The structure was in the background, focusing mainly on the visual effect and decoration. Fantasy, mutability, asymmetry and others intervened. Rococo: Artistic fashion that was born in France, is characterized by lust and superficiality with the aim of surprising and showing off. NEOCLASSICISM XVIII-XIX A.D During this time the Rococo and Neoclassicism coexist. With illustration and human inquiry, objective curiosity for history arises, for example, the excavations of Pompeii begin. Due to the excesses of the Rococo and Baroque, a more rational architecture is sought, where the structural control over the visual effect is recovered. 19th and 20th CENTURY: THE NEW MATERIALS 19th century The walls collapse and the cities begin to expand through working-class and industrial neighborhoods, new construction typologies appear. New shapes and materials are experimented on. Realism appears, in this current, there is a more realistic vision of art. 20th century A «new art» that in Paris and Brussels is called Art Nouveau, in Spain Modernisme and other different names. In Spain stand out Antonio Gaudi. As in painting, expressionist architecture is built with expression, distorting the rational form to express the spirit. This new language lasted a short time, around 1920 it was extinguished due to the excessive cost of handcrafted products. Neoplasticism, both in art and architecture, translates into an orthogonal composition that can be extended to infinity, using planes, straight lines and pure colours in search of a balance between essence and matter as well as purity. Constrctivism is characterised by rejecting the excess of bourgeois decorative charge and ornamentation, and by adopting an abstract geometrisation in rejection of the figurative past. Social intentions are behind a mechanistic aesthetics. Modernism Abstract aesthetics in Germany translated into rationalism that pursued functionality, industrialisation, seriality and economy through elementary volumes, clean planes without decorations, straight lines, pure colours (black and white), flat roofs, large glazing and the absence of façade hierarchies. Important to remark The Staatliches Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe.